Stomatal characteristics and their relationship to heavy metals in maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings

Author: Sali Aliu 1*, Imer Rusinovci 1, Ardian Doko 3, Salih Salihu1, Shukri Fetahu 1, Fetah Elezi 3 and Bekim Gashi 2
Received 2 December 2014, accepted 24 March 2015.
Abstract

Stomatal characteristics and their relationship to heavy metals in maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings were studied in an experiment, arranged in a completely randomized design with five replications under laboratory conditions. The plant material included four maize genotypes: local maize population (LMPs) originating from Kosovo, and hybrids Bodrog (H-4), MV277 (H-6) and Miranda (H-12) from Agricultural Institute, Martonvasar, Hungary. Prepared seeds were placed on the germinator and 10 ml H2O was added. Cultivation lasted 15-20 days at temperature 25ºC in growing room. The plants were cultivated under experimental conditions with different concentrations of Pb2+(200, 400 and 600 µM), Cd2+(60, 120 and 180 µM) and Hg2+ (33, 66 and 100 µM), and the number of stomata on upper (U) and lower (L) leaf surface was determined counting a total of 200 microscopic preparations. The number of stomata was expressed per mm2 of leaf area. With highest Pb2+ concentration, stomata number on upper leaf surface (U) was significantly highest with an average of 30.36 stomata per mm2. The lowest stomata number on upper leaf surface (24.31 stomata per mm2) was with highest Hg+2 concentration.Effects of heavy metal concentrations on local maize populations did not have any significant differences in leaf area because these genotypes seemed more adapted to environmental stress of Pb+2, Cd+2 and Hg+2. In the stomata number the differences were significantly higher. In hybrid genotypes the effects of heavy metals had significant differences in stomatal number. Stomatal parameters revealed significant variations as well as interrelationships, which may be utilized for efficient breeding and crop improvement.

Journal: Food, Agriculture and Environment (JFAE)
Online ISSN: 1459-0263Year: 2015, Vol. 13, Issue 2, pages 168-171.Publisher: WFL.


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