Writing instructions



Sample ARTICLE


Please follow the writing instructions very carefully, check the grammar and style of your manuscript as well as the journal policy before the final submission (§: j.policy).

  • Subject area
  • Research articles (full length)
  • Review articles
  • Short communications
  • Letters to the Editors Views or Opinions
  • Correspondence section (reports on seminars, workshops etc.)


Length

  • Normally, a manuscript should not exceed 30 pages. Any submitted manuscript that is not concise might be returned to the corresponding author for redrafting.

  As yet we do not have a page limit for the following types of contributions:

  • Research notes
  • Brief communications (abstracts should be included)
  • Review articles (a summary or abstract are needed)
  • Book reviews
  • Summary or Abstracts of meetings (will be advertised online)

Typescript

Please type the manuscript using 1.5 line spacing and 12 font size on one side of A4 or 8½” × 11″ paper. All margins (left, right, top and bottom) should be 2.5 cm. Please do not underline headings. Underlining should be used to indicate italicised  words. The use of italics in the manuscript should be restricted to genera and species names, and chemical descriptors (e.g. cis, trans).  Footnotes should be kept to the barest minimum and indicated by * or †. Do not use full stops after abbreviations unless they are essential for clarity. Abbreviations of chemical and other names should be defined with the first mention in the body of the paper, unless  the abbreviations are commonly used and internationally known and accepted.

Units and nomenclature

 Use SI units in accordance with the recommendations of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Use the form  g kg-1etc (not %) to specify content or composition or concentration. Use %, only to express proportional change. Note that the form g 100g-1 etc is not correct. Avoid the use of g per 100g, for example in food or feed composition; instead use g kg-1. Fertilizer rates should be presented in terms of the element applied. Further information on the ISO recommendations can be obtained from the following publication issued by the British Standards Institution, London: Specification for SI units and recommendations for the use of their multiples and of certain other units, BS 5555:1993 ISO 1000:1992.

Symbols

Write all symbols, formulas and equations with great care. Unusual symbols (including Greek lettering) should be defined in words on the left margin at the first mention.  

Scientific names

Write the scientific names (with authority) of plants, animals, microorganisms, with  full generic names at the first mention, e.g. Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Thereafter, abbreviate them in the text, e.g. M persicae. Write scientific names in full (without authority) when they are to occur in the headings of sections, tables, figures and key words. Where appropriate, cultivars should be specified.

 

Enzyme nomenclature

Identify each enzyme together with its EC number, if available, at  the first mention, following the recommendations of the latest edition of Enzyme nomenclature.  

Chemical nomenclature

Use the current systematic IUPAC nomenclature throughout.  

Statistical analyses

Particular care should be taken to ensure that the appropriate statistical analyses have been carried out. The methods used should be described concisely, yet with enough information to explain how the chosen methods have been applied to the data. The form of all experimental errors and their statistical significance must be given clearly. The statistical analyses should be used in the discussion to justify inferences made against the background of normal biological variation.


 Layout

The main body of the paper should be divided into unnumbered sections and each given an appropriate heading. The main headings should be on the left and over the text (11 fonts, bold). The choice of headings will depend on the content of the paper, but the following format is recommended for research papers:

  Title: This should be concise, short, specific and explain the nature of the work.

  Title of manuscript ( 14 fonts, bold, like ” Food consumption in Finland”)

  Leave 3 line spaces after the title and write the author name(s)

The author (s) full name(s) (starting with the forename, then the family, 11 fonts, bold). Each author’s name must have the customary forename in full and other first names given as initials (e.g. William. B. Jain). Write  the full address(es), where the work was done and include all e-mail addresses of the corresponding author and all co-author(s), if possible.


 To facilitate correspondences please keep the JFAE Editorial office informed of any changes in your addresses, e-mails and telephone or fax numbers.

Leave 2 line spaces after the author name(s) and write the abstract.
 

Abstract

The abstract must be informative or concise, giving an overview and essential information such as the purpose of the work; the data derived from it and their statistical significance and be intelligible without reference to the paper itself. It normally should not  exceed 400 words but not less than 250 words. Authors should remember that the abstract is often the only portion of a paper read, as in abstracting journals and the use of unusual acronyms or abbreviations should be avoided.

Use 2 line spaces (for the rest of the subsections).

 
Key words:

List  the main topics incorporated in the paper, including any already given in the title (preferably more than 10-15 key words).
Key words are words that appear with statistically unusual frequency in a text or a corpus of texts.


Introduction

Include a clear description of the aims of the investigation (without summarizing the work itself) and a brief statement of previous relevant work with references. For review articles, indicate clearly the scope of the review such as subject areas, geographical area, or period covered in the review.


Experimental

State clearly, in sufficient detail to permit the work to be repeated, the materials and methods used. Only new techniques and modifications to known methods need to be described in detail, but known methods must have adequate references. Include the name, postal town, code and country of the supplier or manufacturer of any chemical or apparatus not in common use. Give the statistical design (including replication) of each experiment where appropriate.


Results

Present your data concisely, using tables or illustrations for clarity; do not repeat or list the results in the text. State clearly the form of the experimental error and the statistical significance of the results. Do not overstate the precision of the measurements. Histograms or bar charts, unless prepared carefully, are inferior to tables. Only in exceptional circumstances will both tables and illustrations based on the same dataset or measurements be accepted. The Experimental and results, sections may be combined when appropriate.


Discussion

This is a concise section that discusses and interprets the results. Please, do not just repeat the results. A combined results and discussion section sometimes simplifies the presentation.


Conclusions

 This section provides the most important conclusions of the research or study and gives clear interpretation of their importance and relevance. Do not merely repeat the content of preceding sections. The discussion and conclusions sections cannot be merged.  

Acknowledgements

 These include persons who gave technical, writing and general support that made the work a reality, but unqualified to be listed as co-authors. Funding bodies should be acknowledged. Keep acknowledgements  to the absolute minimum.  

References

Please avoid self-citation.

Check carefully for accuracy and follow the correct style. Refer to unpublished work only in the text (William M N unpublished), (Brown C D pers comm). Indicate literature references at the appropriate place in the text using superscript numbers in the order in which they appear and a full numerical list must appear at the end of the paper, giving all authors with initials after the respective surname. Ensure that all references in the list are cited in the text and vice versa. Give the date and full title of the paper in the language in which it appeared or an accurate English translation. Abbreviate all journal titles as in Chemical Abstracts or Biological Abstracts and the annual BIOSIS List of Serials, without using full stops after abbreviation. If the journal is not included, give its title in full. Volume numbers should be in bold print.

 

Note the following style and the order for citation:

An article with one or more
authors

1Hiilovaara-Teijo, M., Hannukkala, A., Griffith, M., Yu, X.-M., and Pihakaski-Maunsbach, K. 1999. Snow-mold-induced apoplastic proteins in winter rye leaves lack antifreeze activity. Plant Physiol. 121: 665-674.

2Office of Agricultural Economics Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives. 2008. 2007 Thailand Agricultural Statistic Annual Report, 230 p.

3Parthanadee, P., Puthakulsomsiri, J., Kompatraporn, C. and Monthatipkul, C. 2009. Supply Chain and Logistics Management for Cassava products in Thailand Final report. Office of Higher Education Commission, Ministry of Education, 340 p.

4Corn Products International.Annual report of 2007. 2008. Available online: http://www.cornproducts.com.

5Peoples, M. B., Faizah, A. W., Rerkasem, B. and Herridge, D. F. 1989. Methods for Evaluating Nitrogen Fixation by Nodulated Legumes in the Field. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra, pp. 47-49.

6China statistical Yearbook 2011: Compiled by National Bureau of Statistics of China. China statistics press FAO/STAT. 2012. http://faostat.fao.org/site/567/DesktopDefault.aspx?PageID=567.pdf (December 2012).


An article in a book

2Bradfort, M.L., Kangas, L., and Nordlund, G. 1990. Model calculations of sulfur and nitrogen deposition in Finland. In: Kauppi, P. et al. (eds.). Acidification in Finland. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. p. 167-197.


A book with one or more authors

3ARC 1984. The nutrient requirements of ruminant livestock. Supplement No. 1. Technical review by an Agricultural Research Council working party, Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Slough, UK. 45 p.

4
Lominadze, D.G. 1981. Cyclotrone waves in plasma. 2nd ed. Oxford: Pergamon Press. 206 p.


5Møller, J., Th¸gersen, R., Kjeldsen, A.M., Weisbjerg, M.R., ;øegaard, K., Hvelplund, T., and

6Børsting, C.F. 2000. Fodermiddeltabel. Sammensætning og foderværdi af fodermidler til

7kvæg. Rapport 91. Århus: Landbrugets Rådgivningscenter. 52 p.

8Senauer, B., Asp, E., and Kinsey, J. 1991. Food trends and the changing consumer. St. Paul, MN: Eagan Press.


Conference papers

1Petit, M., Garel, J.P., D’Hour, P., and Agabriel, J. 1995. The use of forages by the beef cow herd. In: Journet, M. et al. (eds.). Recent developments in the nutrition of herbivores. Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on the Nutrition of Herbivores. Paris: INRA editions. p. 473-496.

2Niskanen, M. 1990. Zinc adsorption and increase of plant zinc concentration upon zinc application in mineral soils of Finland. Transactions of the 15th World Congress of Soil Science, Acapulco, Mexico. 5b: 395-396. When quoting patents give the name of the applicant, the year of publication, the title, the country and patent or application number, for example:

3Hilton MS and Williams ML. 1980. Method of sorting seeds. UK Patent 1777888.



The citation pattern:

  • We invite scientists and students to cite articles published in the JFAE  while submitting articles to other journals. You may recommend our journal to your colleagues, students, libraries, institutions, universities networks and or indexing agencies.

  • The citation pattern will be highly unfavourable if  high  self-citation is used. If authors engage in self-citation, it can cause an unusual rise in items published, this however, reduces the impact on the academic community. We, therefore, invite  scientists, authors or students to cite articles published in the Journal of Food Agriculture & Environment, in many other scientific journals.

    We, have decided to leave the online access to the journal  free and available to everyone. You can forward the link to other scientists or library to connect with us( http://world-food.net/category/journals/ ).

Abbreviations

The International System of Units (SI) should be used. Accepted common names of the active ingredients of chemical formulations should be used in preference to trade names, and confirmed to internationally recognised codes of nomenclature. Generic and specific Latin names should be typed in italics. 


Tables

Tables containing numerical data should be kept to a minimum and should only include essential information (with the level of significant errors). All tables, graphs or photos must be inserted in the body of the text. Each table should have a concise self-explanatory title, and abbreviations used should be defined directly below the tables. Full stops, but not commas, should be used as decimal points. When preparing tables with a word processor, please note that the tabulation key, and not the space bar, should be used to line up the columns. Table-making procedures can also be used.

 Figures (drawings and photographs)

Figures should be selected by considering the printed page format and allowing for the effect of  potential (less than 33%) reduction in size. Alphabetical or numerical characters should be at least 1.5 mm high in print. The figures should be consecutively numbered in Arabic numerals, and their position should be indicated in the margin. All legends to figures should be printed on the same sheet for each figure. Drawings reproduced with a high quality laser printer are preferred. Photographs, if used, should be of good contrast and printed on glossy paper. All figures, photos or tables should be presented in the body of the text. Please do not use use any scanned illustrations.


Please use 300 dpi to 600 dpi when scanning your photos or graphs to avoid bad printing quality. Kindly reduce the size of your file.


 

Where possible, illustrations should be sent by airmail and submitted in electronic format (saved on CD along with the hard copy text) or sent in MSword by email.  In addition, save each figure as a separate file, in TIFF or EPS format preferably and include the source file. Write on the disk the software used to create the files. Use dedicated illustration packages in preference to tools such as Excel or PowerPoint.
Line drawings and figures should be in a form suitable for direct reproduction, no larger than A4 or 8½” × 11″, in black ink, with stenciled lettering (avoid using dry transfer, typewritten or handwritten lettering) all in proportion to the amount of detail. Computer-drawn diagrams must be prepared on a high quality laser or ink jet printer or plotter, not on a dot matrix printer or equivalent.

Use only essential characters and insert these and any other symbols clearly; explain all symbols used, and where a key to symbols is required, please include this in the artwork itself, not in the figure legend. On graphs, include labels and units on axes. Present logarithmic scales with arithmetic numbering 0.1, 1, 10, 100 rather than -1, 0, 1, 2. Avoid unnecessary long axes that lead to large blank spaces on graphs.

 

Line drawings and figures should all require the same degree of reduction and all characters must be chosen so that after reduction they are at least 1.5 mm in height. The type area of the Journal is 172 mm wide × 249 mm deep, in two columns each 81 mm wide, and the characters should therefore be large enough to be legible after reduction of the illustrations to fit the page or column width. Photographs (halftones) should be supplied as glossy prints (four original prints of each) of good contrast, photocopies are not acceptable. Do not allow them to be damaged by paper clips, folding etc. Some loss of clarity may occur during reproduction if these instructions are not followed.

Electrophoresis patterns

These are complex photographs, which often lack clarity and should not be included except to make a particular point. Where the reporting of gel electrophoresis, SDS gels, immuno-electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing etc., is essential, adhere to the following principles:

  1. a single zone requires only description in the text
  2. preferably claim homogeneity using a scan diagram
  3. preferably use a single gel to compare several tracks
  4. when scanned diagrams are used, accurate alignment is essential

Where photographs or scanned diagrams must be used:

  1. number all zones and identify those common to more than one track
  2. give a molecular weight scale for SDS gels
  3. give experimental details and track identification in the legend

Chemical structures

Prepare these on a separate sheet as described for illustrations and number the individual formulae with Roman numerals (I, II). All bonds, charges and free radicals should be accurately positioned. Indicate aromatic and unsaturated heterocyclic systems using double bonds. Preferably use general structures, distinguishing related compounds by substituents R1, R2 etc.  


PLEASE READ THE INFORMATION BELOW VERY CAREFULLY,  BEFORE SUBMITTING YOUR MANUSCRIPT TO THIS  JOURNAL.

Before the final submission of your manuscript to the JFAE,  the Author MUST SEND his or her paper for editing:

1.  The author must send his or her paper to a language centre to correct grammatical mistakes or reformulate sentences and or improve the quality .

2.  Appoint  yourself at least three to four external known scientists or experts to review your paper (preferably from some English- speaking countries).

3. Kindly  implement all corrections, comments, details or statements given by reviewers or  editors, in order to improve your paper. Once all corrections are done properly,  you may submit  your manuscript  to the JFAE.

4. Along with your paper submission, we want to have full names, emails and details of the experts or scientists who have edited your paper(s). We will continue the work from our side.

5.  Along with the corrected and improved paper submission, we want to have the final statement or decision of the reviewers with more details. Otherwise, we will reject your paper.

6. Based on the comments of the reviewers or editors, kindly submit the final corrected version of your paper (well corrected, well edited and well written)  to our journal.

The JFAE editorial board will consider reviewers’ comments and make some minor corrections or changes on  the submitted paper. Please consider the importance of the theme(s) of your manuscripts to avoid the rejection of your paper(s).

The author is fully responsible for  the content, evaluation and quality of the submitted paper (§:Journal policy).