Effect of pH, temperature and heating time on the formation of furan from typical carbohydrates and ascorbic acid

Author: Shao-Ping Nie 1*, Jun-Gen Huang 1, Jie-Lun Hu 1, Ya-Nan Zhang 1, Sunan Wang 2, Chang Li 1, Massimo F. Marcone 2 and Ming-Yong Xie 1*
Received 26 September 2012, accepted 22 January 2013.
The presence of furan levels in foods has attracted considerable attention worldwide because furan is considered to be a possible carcinogenic substance to both humans and animals alike. Furan formation in the presence of carbohydrates and ascorbic acid in food during thermal processing is influenced by several factors including pH, temperature and time. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pH, heating temperature, and heating time on furan formation in glucose, fructose, sucrose and ascorbic acid solutions model. Headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS) was used to monitor the furan level in each of the four model systems. The results revealed that the most level (P < 0.05) of furan was found in glucose, fructose and ascorbic acid at pH 9.40, pH 7.00 and pH 4.18, respectively, when heating temperature was more than 90ºC, but sucrose solution produced significantly (P < 0.05) more furan at pH 4.18 at heating temperature > 130ºC. Furthermore, the ascorbic acid solution produced significantly (P < 0.05) more furan than glucose, fructose and sucrose solution during heat processing. From these results, it was indicated that heat-induced furan formation from four experimental models using glucose, fructose, sucrose and ascorbic acid was significantly influenced by different heat processing parameters such as pH, heating temperatures, and heating time. In addition, it was also suggested that higher heating temperature was needed to produce furan for sucrose. Further studies will use various carbohydrate mixture models to stimulate the carbohydrate and ascorbic acid complexes found within various food matrices.

Journal: Food, Agriculture and Environment (JFAE)
Online ISSN: 1459-0263Year: 2013, Vol. 11, Issue 1, pages 121-125.Publisher: WFL.

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